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陳東升: 長壽時代的理論與對策(下)

(二)長壽時代下社會經濟發展的機遇

1.長壽時代技術進步對勞動力的替代率提升

秒速飞艇zaiqianwendefenxizhong,miaosufeitingmencongliluncengmianliejulelaolingrenkouzhanbizengjiaduijingjizengchangkenengchanshengdeyixiefumianyingxiang。danshi,zhenduioecdguojia1960~2011niandeshizhengyanjiuxianshi,renjungdpdebianhuahelaolingrenkouzhanbideguanxibingbuxianzhu(gehringer and prettner,2017)。

秒速飞艇liluncengmianyushizhengfenxidepianlikenengyuanwurenmendigulechangshoushidaijishujinbuduilaodonglidetidaixiaoying,erdangqianlaolinghuajinchengjiaokuaideguojiaquewangwangshizidonghuajishufazhanjiaokuaideguojia。acemogluherestrepo(2017)delilunwenzhangcongliangfangmiantaolunlelaodonglijianshaoduijingjideyingxiang。yifangmianlaodonglixiajiangdaozhizongchanchuxiajiang,lingyifangmianyouwulaodonglidexiajianghuineishengxingdijifachanyezidonghuahejiqirenchanyedefazhan,zuizhongdezongchanchubingbuyidingxiajiang。houzhehuifashengzhuyaoshidangzibenhelaodonglidequekouzugoudashi,zibenbiandebilaodongligengbianyi,tongguozibenzhuanhuadejiqidaitilaodonglibiandeyouliketu。lingyouyanjiuzhichuchangshouduijishujinbuheshengchanlizengchangchanshengjijiyingxiang,qiduioecdguojiadeshizhengfenxizhengshilezheyililun(gehringer and prettner,2017)。

2.「長壽經濟」創造新的供給與需求

suizhulaolingrenkouzengduo,laonianrendexiaofeichengweijingjidezhongyaozuchengbufen,danmuqianzhezhongxiaofeiguannianshigongyeshidaijianlide,renweilaonianrentuichulaodonglishichang,baochilaonianrenjiankangdeweiyifangfajiushixiuxi。genjuoumengweiyuanhuideyixiangyanjiuxianshi,zhudaolaonianrenxiaofeideshibaojianpinhezhaoliaofuwu,zaizhegeguannianxia,youxuezhejiangcichengweiyinfajingji。suiranzheshishehuizhengtixiaofeidezhongyaobufen,danbukefourendeshi,zhebufenxiaofeiduishehuizhengtidetouzihexiaofeijichuxiaoyinggengda,bingqiezailaodonglishichangshangzhengduonianqinglaodongli,yinfarenliziyuandeweiji。xiaohaoxingdelaonianrenxiaofeijiasushehuizongtiziyuandeweiji,fanguolai,shehuizongtiziyuandeweijiyoujiajulaolingrenkoushenghuojiejudekunnan,suoyiyinfajingjiduijingjidezhengmianyingxiangjiqiyouxian(caplan,2014)。

yuyinfajingjiqiangdiaolaonianrendexiaohaoxingxiaofeibutong,zhenzhengshiyingchangshoushidaishehuijingjijiegoudeshigengyouhuolidechangshoujingji。zaichangshoujingjidegainianxia,laonianrenchuzuoweixiaofeizhewai,tongshihuandanrenzhushengchanzhehechuangxinzhedejiaose,zaixiaofeiduanhegonggeiduantongshituidongjingjizengchangheshehuijinbu。miaosufeitingmenzhengchuwuyigekejiqudongdezhuanxingqi,duitililaodongdexuqiuzaichixujianshaohuozhekeyibeijiqirensuodaiti,hulianwangzhengzaizhongxinzuheshengchanyaosu,shidekongjianshangdeyidongxuqiudadajianshao,rengongzhihuizhengzaiyurenleizhilijiehe。laonianrendejiazhijiangbeizhongxinrenshi、dingweihefajue,erbushitingliuzaishehuiziyuandexiaohaozhezhegekebandedingweishang。yunyongxinsiluranglaonianrentongguogenglinghuodefangshicanyulaodonglishichang,chuanshouzhishijineng、chuandijingyanhuozhejinxingshehuifuwugongzuo,ranglaonianren「chixu」shengchanhechuangxin,chuangzaoshuwutamenzijide「disancirenkouhongli」。zhengrumeiguomashengligongxueyuanlaolingshiyanshi(agelab)deyuesefu·kugelin(joseph coughlin)jiaoshouzai《changshoujingji》yishuzhongzhichu,changshoushijiedeweilaiqujuewulaonianrenzaiqizhongdexingdong(coughlin,2017)。

秒速飞艇changshoujingjishilaolingrenkoutuidongdesuoyoujingjihuodongjiqiliansuofanyingdezonghe。yifangmian,shijieshangjihumeigeguojialaolingrenkoudebilidoujiangzengjia,shichangxuqiufeichangpangdaqiekeyiyujianzengchang。laonianrentongguobuduanbianhuadexuqiutuidongdaliangxinchanpinhefuwubingweiqitigongzijin,tebieshineixiecaiyongjishuchuangxindechanpinhefuwu,yizhijie、jianjiehuozheyindaodefangshixingchenghegaibianshichang,dizaoquanxindechangshoujingji。boshidunzixunjituan(boston consulting group)yuji,dao2030nian,meiguo55suiyishangderenkoujiangzhanmeiguozi2008nianyilaixiaofeizhichuzengchangde50%,ribenhedeguodezheyishuzifenbieshengzhi67%he86%。meiguotuixiurenyuanxiehui(aarp)yuce,laonianrenduiwujingjiheshehuidegongxianjuzuqingzhong,qie2050nianzhiqiansuizhulaolingrenkoudezengjiadoujiangchixushangsheng。liru,2018nian,meiguo50suijiyishangrenkouzhijiexiaofeizhichu7.6zhaomeiyuan,zhanquanburenkoude56%,zhi2050nianjiangda27.5zhaomeiyuan,zhanbijiangtishengzhi61%。zhexiequshijiangweiweilai30duoniandejingjizengchangdiandingjichu。lingyifangmian,renmenzaiguoletuixiunianlingzhihoujixucanyulaodonglishichang,jixugongzuohuochuangye,jixuzhuanquhezhichugongzi,qijingjihuodongdegongxianchixuzengjia,chixutuidongjingjizengchang。zaixuduoqingkuangxia,laonianrendeshengchanlihechuangzaolishenzhikenengsuizhunianlingdezengchangertigao。yigechangbeitijidexianxiangshi,nianchangdelaodonglidaduoshouguwuzhishimijixingxingye,jubeigengduodezhishijinenghejingyan,bingyincigengyoujiazhi。shishishang,zhexiezhishijinenghejingyandejileiyeyouzhuwuchuangye。jumeiguotuixiurenyuanxiehui(aarp)tongji,zaimeiguo,50suijiyishangrenshidechuangyelvzuigao,yuewei20duosuirenshide2bei,tamenjianlilemeiguojin1/3dechuangyeqiye。zunzhonglaonianren,rangtamenyoujihuichixuweiguzhufahuizijidezhishijinenghejingyan,huozhechuangye,zhejiangshitamenchengweizhenxingjingjidegengqiangdadeliliang。

秒速飞艇changshoujingjiyunhanjudadeshangyejihui,qijingjishouyibukeguliang,jiangxiyinyuelaiyueduodeqiye、jigouhetouzizhecanyuqizhong。zhexieshangyejihuichaoyuemiaosufeitingmenxianyoudeguifanjiexian,yinweixinshidaidelaonianrenzaipingjunyiyishangbishangyidaigengweifuyu,qiegengduoshouguogaodengjiaoyu,qicaifushuipinghezhichufangshichixuyanjin,xiguanwuchuangxinqudongdeshichang。qiye、jigouhetouzizhezaitupochuantongsiweifangshi、chixuchuangxinmianxianglaonianrendechanpinhefuwudeguochengzhong,xuyaozhenzhengqulijielaonianrendeduoyuanhuaxuqiu,yingzaimanzujibenshenglihuoanquanxuqiuzhiwai,genghaodimanzulaonianrengenggaocengcidexuqiu,lirushilaohuadekejichanpin、tishengshenghuozhiliangdexiaofeiyiliaochanpinyijimanzujixufazhanxuqiudejiaoyuwenhuachanpindeng。

qiye、jigouhetouzizhehuanxuweilaonianrencanyujingjihuodong、chuangzaojiazhi、jiansheheyingxiangzhouweideshijiequanmianfuneng,lirugulilaonianrencanyuchuangxin、weilaonianrentigonggongzuogangweiheshilaohuahuanjing、weilaonianrentishengjingzhenglichuangzaotiaojiandengdeng,congerzengjialaonianrendeshouru。yiqichezhizaoshangweili,baomaweileliuzhujishushulian、jingyanfengfudelaolinggongren,gaizaoshengchanxian、chuangzaoheshidegongzuohuanjingyibianrangqijixugongzuo。2011nianxinshengchanxianyingyongwuqizaideguodinggelin(dingolfing)deyigedaxingxingongchang,gaigongchangwanquanyou50suijiyishangdegongrenyingyun。ciwai,baoma、aodi、dazhongdengqichezhizaoshangjunzaichuangxinshiyankechuandaijiqiren——waiguge,tongguojianqingguanjiefudanbingzengqianglilianglaitishenglaolinggongrendeshengchanlihejingzhengli。changshoujingjizaimouxietedinglingyubiaoxianyouweixianzhu,zhuyaobaokuojinrongfuwuhebaoxian(migliaccio,2019)、yiliaojiankanghekeji,zhexietedingxingyezhengbeituixiangchuangxinhetuozhandexinfangxiang,liruwulinggandezhihuijiajujishu、wurenjiashideng。

fazhanchangshoujingjiyouliwuhuanjieshehuibupingdeng。shichangjiangweiraolaonianrendeduoyuanhuaxuqiuxingchengfengfudeyetai,weilaonianquntidejiankangshenghuoheshunligongzuotigonggengxizhidefuwuhezhicheng。tongshi,gengduodelaonianrenjiangcanyudaoshengchanchuangzaozhong。laonianrenzaigangshijiandeyanchangheshouruzengchangnengyidingchengdushanghuanjieyanglaojintidailvbuzudewenti,yeyouliwujianqingduiwulaodongrenkoubilixiajiangdaozhicaifuchajukuodadedanyou。

秒速飞艇zaihulianwang、rengongzhihui、jiqirendengjishubuduanjinbudejichushang,changshoujingjizuoweiyizhongxindejingjimoshi,zaiquanqiulaolingrenkouzhanbishangshengdedaqushizhong,jiangchengweiquanqiujingjidequdongli,bingzaofuwugenianlingcenghegedairen。suizhurenkouyuqishoumingdeyanchang,getizaijiaochangdeshengmingzhouqineixuexi、shengchan、shenghuodefangshifashengjudazhuanbian,jingjiheshehuijiazhiyesuizhizhengtizhuanbian,changshoujingjibiandegengweipubian,chongfenjifa「disancirenkouhongli」,jinerchengweijingjiheshehuidehexinzhiyi。

(三)長壽時代下日本的社會經濟變化分析

秒速飞艇ribenmuqianshiquanqiurenkoulaolinghuazuiyanzhongdeguojiazhiyi,shijieyinxingshujuxianshi,2014nianqi65suiyishangrenkoubizhongdadao25%,keyishuolvxiankuaruchangshoushidai。changshoushidaixiaderibenshehuijingjifashengleshenkebianhua。miaosufeitingmengenjuqianwentigongdelilunshijiao, fenxiribendebianhua,jianghuigeiweilaidezhongguogengjiashenrudeqishi。

renkouhonglishuaitui,chuxulvjiangdi,jingjizengchanghuanman。diercishijiedazhanhouzhi20shiji70niandairibenjingjijinrugaosuzengchangshiqi。shijieyinxingshujuxianshi,1970nianriben65suijiyishanglaolingrenkouzhanzongrenkoudebizhongdadao7%,shehuikaishizhengshiburulaolinghua。renkoudeguaidianyebiaozhizhulaodongmijixingjingjigaosufazhanmoshidejieshu。1994nianribenlaolingrenkoubizhongyidadao14%,buruzhongdulaolinghua。yuzhiduiyingde,20shiji90niandaiyilai,ribenjingjizongtizouxiapolu,changqichuwudimizhuangtai。zheyiqijian,ribenchuxulvyu15~64suirenkouzhanbizai1991nianzuoyoutongshidaodagaodian,zhihoukaishiburumanchangdexiajiangtongdao。chuxudeweisuoyedailairibentouzideweisuo。ribentouzizengsuzaicong90niandaichuyekaishizhendangxiaxing,suihouyizhizai0%fujinpaihuai。ribendelilvyesuizhichixuxiaxing,shenzhijinrufulilvshidai,beihouzhuyaoyuanyinshizijindexuqiu(touzi)xiajiangsudukuaiwuzijingonggei(chuxu)dexiajiangsudu。

秒速飞艇ribenlaodongshengchanlvdezengchangfanghuan,jishutidaijiakuai。laodongshengchanlvdaibiaomeidanweiyouxiaolaodongdepingjunchanchu,shijuedingyiguojingjishifoujuyouweilaizengchangxingdebiaozhixingzhibiao。ribenlaodongshengchanlvzengsuzai1970nianhouxiaxingdequshimingxian。laodongshengchanlvlaizi3gefangmian,zibenshenhua、laodonglisuzhi、quanyaosushengchanlv。zibenshenhuajizibenlaodongbidetigao。yazhoushengchanlizuzhi(asian productivity organization)deshujuxianshi,jin40nianyingxiangribenlaodongshengchanlvde3geyaosudouchuxianbutongchengduxiajiang。zibentidaifangmian,laodonglichengbenshangsheng、shuliangduanquecushizibenjiadaduilaodonglidetidai。dansuizhuzibenduilaodongdebianjitidailvdijianhetouzideweisuo,zibenshenhuajinjinianduilaodongshengchanlvshenzhichuxiantuolei。quanyaosushengchanlvfangmian,laolingrenkouzhanbidezengjiacijilejishutidai,ribenjiqirenhezidonghuadengjianduanjishugaosufazhan。20shiji70~80niandairibenquanyaosushengchanlvqianglizhichenglaodongshengchanlv,danshipaomopomiehouzhezhongzhichengyousuojianruo。quanyaosushengchanlvdezhubudimiyeyuchangshoushidaixiaribenshehuijiecengguhuahejiachangshiqiyeguanlijiegouyizhichuangxinyouguan。laodonglisuzhifangmian,shijielingxiandegaodengjiaoyupujilvshideribenrenkousuzhizhengtijiaogao,gaosuzhilaodonglichengweiduichonglaodongshengchanlvxiaxingdezhongyaoyinsu。

ribenyinfajingjixiangguanxiaofeixuqiutisheng,danbingweiwanquanyinglaichangshoujingji。changshoushidaixiaxiaofeishiribenjingjizengchangzuizhongyaodequdongli,ribenneigefushujuxianshi,xiaofeigongxianlejin60%degdp。suiranribenrenkouzongliangjinnianchuxiansuojian,danribendexiaofeizongliangzhengtichengwendingdisuzengchangtaishi。ribenshehuiyulaonianrenxiangguandeyiliaobaojian、hulileixiaofeizhichuzaizongxiaofeizhongdezhanbizhujiantisheng。ribendelaonianrengengduobanyanxiaofeizhedejiaose,tongguoxiaohaoxingdexiaofeituidongjingjijinbu。suiranribenyezaishiyinglaolinghuadetiaozhan,bufenlaonianrentuixiuhourengcanyulaodonglishichang,danmiaosufeitingmenrenwei,qicanyuchengdushengchanliguimohechuangzaolihuanbuzuyishiribenlaonianrenchengweishengchanzhehechuangxinzhedejiaose,changshoujingjihuanbingweizairibenwanquanshixian。

laonianpinkunyejiadaleribenshehuishouruchaju。suizhu「laolingshaozihua」xianxiangjiajuheyiliaochengbentisheng,ribendelaonianpinkunwentiriyituchu(dingyingshun,2017)。tongshi,laodongrenkouxiajiangdaozhiyanglaojinquekouzhuniankuoda,duigonggongcaizhengzaochengchenzhongyali。youwushouruxiangduijiaodidelaolingrenkoudebilibuduantigao,ribenshehuizongtideshouruchajuchengkuodaqushi。congfanyingshourufenpeichayichengdudejinixishulaikan(rutu7),1985~2015nian30nianjian,ribenshehuidejinixishudafushangsheng。qitafadaguojiadeshujuyebiaomingsuizhulaolinghuajinchengjiashen,shehuidebupingdengchengdujianghuijiashen。

(四)對中國的啟示

1.通過教育提高人力資本,以抵消勞動力和生產率下降的影響

yuriben20shiji70niandaixiangsi,zhongguozhengchuzaijingjijiegouzhuanxingdeguochengzhong,xiaofeizhujianchengweijingjidequdongli,yuzhiduiyingde,disanchanyezhangdpbishangsheng,dierchanyezhanbijinglidingfenghouxiajiang。chanyejiegouzhuanxingzhijieyingxianglaodonglixuqiujiegou,yifuwuyeweidaibiaodedisanchanyedelaodonglixuqiuyexiangyingzengjia。

fuwushehuixia,jiaoyudailairenlizibenshangsheng,keyidixiaobufenlaodongligonggeihelaodongshengchanlvxiajiangdeyingxiang。bulunshiconggerenshouruhuanshiconghongguanjingjijiaodu,jiaoyudetouzihuibaolvdoujigao(psacharopoulos,1994)。jiaoyushizaochenggeguoshengchanlichajudezhongyaoyuanyin。laodonglishoujiaoyuchengduyuegao,shengchanliyuefada(mankiw et al.,1992)。zhengruribengaosuzhilaodonglishiduichonglaodongshengchanlvxiaxingdezhongyaoyinsu,jiaoyuhongliduilaodonglixuqiuyoujiaoqiangdetidaizuoyong。changshoushidaixiadelaolingrenkouzhanbitishengduijingjidefumianyingxiangzhuyaojizhongzaigongyeshehuizhong,ertongguotouzijiaoyutigaorenliziben,zaifuwushehuixiakeyiyouxiaodidixiaolaodongliweisuogeijingjidailaidefumianyingxiang。

2.加快技術替代,通過技術創新引導經濟增長

zidonghuahejiqirendeyingyongjiangchengweijiejuelaodonglixiajiangdezhongyaoshouduan。ribendelizizhong,zidonghuahejiqirenchanyeshunyingzhuchangshoushidaipengbofazhan,xuduoxingyejiakuailejiqihejishutidairenli。suizhujishudebuduanfazhan,jingjixuejiayuyandejiqirendaitirengonglaodongdeshidaizaibuduanbijin。shijieyinxingdeshujuzexianshi,oecdguojiazhongjiangyou57%degongrendegongzuonengbeijiqiqudai。cong1993niandao2007nian,oumeiyijingtourujingjishengchandejiqirenzengchangle4bei,shuliangdagaizai150wan~175wanzhijian。boshidunzixunguji,zheyishuliangzai2025nianjianghuizengchangzhi400wan~600wan。gexingyeshiyongjiqirenqingkuangfenbiewei: qichexingyeshiyongle39%dejiqiren,jugexingyezhishou;dianzi、jinshu、suliaohuagongxingyefenbiewei19%、9%he9%(acemoglu and restrepo,2017)。jiqirentidaichuantongrenli,jiangtigaoshengchanxiaolv,jiasuzidonghuajixiangguanxingyedefazhan,jinerjinyibuyindaochuangxincujinjingjizengchang。

3.通過建設有效的資本市場提升第二次人口紅利的效率

youxiaozibenshichangshishifangdiercirenkouhonglidezuijiaguandao。gaigekaifangcujinzhongguodiyicirenkouhonglishifang。suizhulaodonglisuzhitigao、shehuigonggonghuanjinggaishan,diercirenkouhonglijihuichuangkouyijingkaiqi。diercirenkouhonglidetiaojianyaoqiugenggao,renjunzibendetishengyaozhuanhuaweijingjizengchang,xuyaoyilaiwaibudezhiduxingjianshe,youqishizibenshichangdejianshe。ruguozibenshichangdeshichanghuachengdudi,rongziguandaodanyi,huizaochengrongzichengbengao,ziyuannanyiyouxiaofenpei。ribendelizixianshi,shehuijinruchangshoushidaiyehuizhijieyingxianglilvjitouzishouyilv。weilairuguoquanqiuxinxingshichangdoujinruchangshoushidai,quanqiudezibenshichanghetouzishouyiyebijiangjinruxindejunhengtai。lingyifangmianyanglaojinzichanguimochixuzengchangshidehuodegaoshouyidenanduzengjia。shangshujizhongzuoyongjiangtiaozhanzhongguoyanglaocaifudechangqitouzishouyilvshifounengchixuxianzhuchaoyuetonghuopengzhang,shixianbaozhizengzhi。yincizhongguodeyanglaojintouzijigouxuyaozhongshiquanyizichanpeizhi,tishengduizibenshichangzhijierongzishuiping。

4.引入長壽經濟,創造第三次人口紅利

yinruchangshoujingjilinian,ranglaonianren「chixu」shengchanhechuangxin,chuangzaoshuwutamenzijide「disancirenkouhongli」,xuyaogaibianyuanyoudeshoujiaoyu、gongzuo、tuixiusanduanshidegongyeshidaiyonggongfangshi,xuyaoyunyongxinsiluchuangzaoshuwulaonianrendexiaofeiheshengchanfangshi。

chuantonglilunrenweilaolinghuaduijingjidefumianzuoyongzhuyaolaiziwulaodongliduanque,duiziyuandexiaohaohejiejiguhuaduichuangxindezuai。changshoujingjixia,qingkuangkenengbianhua。shouxian,laodongliduanquekeyitongguojiqirenherengongzhihuitidai,tongshishouguolianghaojiaoyudelaolingrenkouyounengliheyiyuancanyushengchan,mouzhongchengdushangkeyihuanjiechuantonglaodonglixiajiangdeyali。lingyifangmianlaonianrenyueli、jingyan、xueshifengfu,keyizengjiazhiliyaosudegonggei。qici,ziyuandexiaohaokeyitongguofazhanxinxingjiankangchanyejianshaoziyuanjizhan。guowanglaolinghuaduitouzidejichuzuoyongzhuyaolaiziyiliao、hulidenghuanjiexiaohaoziyuan。erzhexiebumenshicongjizhengzhenliaojiaodutigongchanpin,zaochengziyuandelangfei,shenzhizuaijingjidezengchang。zairenshidaolaorendaibingshengcunwentihou,xindejiankangchanyejiangyijichuyiliaohemanbingguanliweizhongxin,zhejiujianshaoleziyuandejizhan。zuihou,chuangxindezuaikenenghuizaichangshoujingjixindezuzhixingtaixiadedaohuanjie。dangquanqiuburuchangshoushidai,zaichuantongjingjizhiwaijiangchanshengweiraolaolingrenkoudechangshoujingji,qifanchouhejiegou、zuzhixingtaiheshengchanfangshidoushixinde,keshiweishehuijingjidezengliang。zaizengliangjingjideyingxiangxia,butongnianlingcengrenkoudeshehuimaodunhechongtukenenghuanjie。

秒速飞艇zaizhongguolaolingrenkouzhanbichixutishengdebeijingxia,zaixuqiuce,shiyinglaonianrenxuqiudechuangxinjiangzaigengdachengdushangladongjingji,biruwurenjiashi、zhihuijiajukenengchengweizhongyaodechanye;yiyangjieheshequgenghaodimanzulaonianrendeshenghuoxuyao,yuzhixiangguandeyanglaochanyelianyejiangpengbofazhan。zaigonggeice,ruheranglaonianrenyenenggou「chixu」shengchan,chuangzaoshuwutamende「disancirenkouhongli」yezhidetansuo。zaichangshoushidaidezhutixia,changshoujingjiyukejijiangkenengchanshengqiansuoweiyoudeshengchanfangshi。zidonghuayurengongzhihuijishujinyibuduichujilaodonglijinxingtidai,xunxihuahehulianwanghuaqianghuazhiliyaosugonggei,quanxindejingjixingtai、shengchanfangshihuichuxian,laodongshengchanlvhuojiangdafutisheng。quanxindeshengchanxuyaodelaodonglisuzhijiangbutongwuchuantong,duijiaoyubumentichuzhongshenjiaoyudexuqiu,bingcujinlaodonglishichangzainianlingjiegoushangdadaoyigexindepingheng。

5.重塑政府職能,促進長壽時代下的社會公平

zaichangshoushidai,shehuimianlindezuidatiaozhanshicaifubupingdengjiaju,yijiyuzhibanshengdejiankangbupingdengwenti。ruhequebaodishouruzheyenengbaochijiankangchangshoushizhengcezhidingzhexuyaokaolvdeguanjianyiti。ribenxiangduiwanshandelaolingrenkoushehuibaozhangtixigurankeyijiejian,tongshiyeyaokandaoyouwuribenjingjizengchangchihuan、kuaisulaolinghuashigonggongyanglaojinzhichubuduanshangsheng,geizhengfuzaochengchenzhongdecaizhengyali,dailailezhengfuzhaiwufengxian(zhangshibindeng,2012)。miaosufeitingmenrenwei,zhengfugengzhongyaodezhinengshijifachangshoushidaidejingjihuoli,cujingerenzaibutongshengmingjieduandecaifujilei,rutigaojiaoyushuiping、changdaozhongshenxuexihezhiyejiaoyu、guliqiyemianxianglaolingrenkouchuangxin、yunxugenglinghuodejiuyexingshiheyonggongxingshi;tongshitishengjibenyiliaoweishengfuwushuiping,tishengweishengfuwudexiaoyi,manzuduocengcideyiliaojiankangxuqiu;zaiquanmiantigaoguominzairenlizibenhecaifujileidejichushangjinxinghelidezaifenpei,suoxiaoshouruchaju,tigaoruoshiquntideshenghuozhilianghejiankangshuiping。

四、長壽時代的對策

秒速飞艇changshoushidaishiguanxirenleiweilaifazhandezhongdawenti,ruheyingduichangshoushidaidailaidetiaozhan,ruherangchangshoushidaibubansuipinkunhejibing,shizhenggerenleimianlindequanqiuxingdedawenti,shenzhishiguanxirenleiweilaifazhanfangxiangheshengsicunwangdewenti。changshoushidaihesuizhierlaidejiankangshidaihecaifushidai,yingxiangdebujinjinshilaolingjieduandegeti,ershishejiquanshengmingzhouqiderenshengguihua。zhongxinguihuachangshoushidaigetiquanshengmingzhouqideanpai,shigetikeyigenghaodiyingduichangshoushidaidetiaozhan,shishehui、zhengfuheqiyedouxuyaokaolvdewenti。

1.在社會層面,需通過產業結構的變遷滿足長壽時代的個人需求

秒速飞艇gerenshishehuidejibendanyuan,changshoushidai,gerenxuqiujiangchengxianxintezhi。gongyehuashidairenmentongchangjiangrenshenghuafenwei3gejieduan,jiaoyuqi、jiuyeqihetuixiuqi。suizhuchangshoushidaidedaolai,renshengjiangyouduogejieduanzucheng,erbushigongyehuashidaidanyidexianxingweidu(linda·geladundeng,2018)。suizhurenshengdeyanchangherenshengjieduandebianhua,gerenxuyaozhongxinshenshichangshoudeshengmingguocheng,duirenlizibenhecaifudejileiyuxiaofeizhongxinjinxingguihua。zaicibeijingxia,gerenxuqiujiangbiaoxianchu3getezhi: yishijiankangxuqiu,rangshengmingzhiliangdeyiyouxiaoyanchang,youchongfendehuolimianduirenshengjieduandebianhua,erbushizaixuruohebingtongzhongxuhaomanchangderensheng;ershicaiwuheyanglaojinxuqiu,weiyuqizengjiadeshoumingchubeigengduodezijin,weichicaiwuwending,manzuyanglaohejiankangdexuqiu,congerhuodeyouzhiliangdechangshourensheng;sanshihuoquxinzhishi、xinjinengdexuqiu,changshoushidaigerenweichishengjisuoxudezhishihejinengjiangbuduanbianhua,xuyaozhongshenxuexi,suishidaibianhuazhangwoxindejineng,yigenghaodijileicaifuyingduichangshourensheng。zhexiegerenxuqiudebianhuadouduixianxingdeshehuijingji、zhengzhi、wenhua、jiaoyu、jiuyedengsuoyoujiegoutichutiaozhan。

gerenxuqiudebianhuajiangdaidongshehuichanyejiegouconggongyehuaxianghougongyehuamaijin。zaizhefangmian,zhongguokeyijiejianhenduofadaguojiazhuanxingdejingyan。congmeiguolaogongtongjijudeshujulaikan,jinru21shiji,fuwuxiangguandedisanchanyezaijingjizhongdezhanbideyitisheng。nongyezai1869nianzhanmeiguogdpdejin40%,dao2013nianzhiyou1%。yunongyexiangbi,fuwuyezaijingjizhongdefenecong1929niande40%shangshengdao2013niande65%zuoyou。yuzhegequshileisi,changshoushidaigerenzuihexinde3gexuqiuqiaqiadouduiyingdangqianfuwuyezhongdegaoduanchanye。weilai,yuchangshouxiangguandejiankang、yanglao、jiaoyuchanyeheyuzhiduiyingdekeji、yanfachanyedezengchangsudujiangmingxiangaowujunzhi。

2.在政府層面,需健全社保體系,推動醫養供給側改革,引導長壽經濟轉型和個體行為轉變

mianduichangshoushidaidedaolai,shebaotixidechouziyuzhifujiangmianlingengdadetiaozhan,congweihushebaotixiwendingdejiaodukan,zhengfukecaiqushidangtuichizhigongtuixiunianling、zengjiashebaojiaofeinianxian、tigaoshebaochouzijishudengcuoshi。tongshi,zhengfuyingshishehuibaozhangtixishiyingchangshoushidaidebianhua,biruyouhuayanglaojinsanzhizhubili,fazhangerenyanglaodisanzhizhu,tuidongchangqixingguangyiyanglaojinkaizhanshichanghuatouzi;tongshihelizhichuyibaozijin,tishengmanbingguanlidexiaoyi,jianliguangfugaidechangqizhaohujizhideng。chuleweihujichushehuibaozhangtixidewendinghegaoxiao,zhengfuyinggaizhulijiangdichangshoushidaidegonggeicedechengben,tongguogeleizhengceyindaohejilikuodayiyangfuwugonggei,chongfenfahuishichangzuoyong,mibuyanglaohejiankangfuwuquekou。zhengfukeyitongguotudiyushuifeizhengceyijishui、dian、qidengjichunenghaodejiageyouhuizhengce,jiangdiyiyangfuwugonggeifangdejiansheheyingyunchengben;jinyibufangkuanshehuizibentouzishelijiankangfuwu、yanglaojigoudezhunru,weiyiyangxingyetuozhantourongziguandao;jiaqiangduiyiyangyingyunfuwudeshichanghuajianguanyubiaozhuntixijianshe,tuidongshehuibanyugongliyiyangfuwugonggeifangxiangshoutongdengdefazhanyufuchizhengce。tongshi,zhengfuyinggaichixuyindaobaoxianyujinronglingyuwanshanzhifuyuchanpintixi,youxiaocujinjiankang、yanglaoxiangguanfuwuxiaofei,shidegonggeifangzaimanzuchangshoushidaifuwuxuqiudetongshiyenenghuodebuduanchuangxinfazhandedongli。ciwai,zhengfuyinggaigulijiaoyuhehulianwangchanyetigonggengjiashiyingchangshoushidaixiaminzhongdeduocengcizhiyejiaoyu、xingquxuexiheshehuimiaosufeitingxuqiudepingtai。

秒速飞艇zaijingjizhengcecengmian,zhengruqianwenfenxi,weilejianqinglaolingrenkouduijingjidechongji,zhengfuchulechixutuidongjishushengji,huanxuyaodalituidongchangshoujingjifazhan,chuangxinjiuyegangwei、tigaojiuyedelinghuoxing,weilaonianrenjixucanyujingjihuodong、chuangzaoshehuijiazhitigongtiaojian,zaicijichushangquanmianjifalaolingrenkoudeduoyuanhuaxuqiu,tishengchanyejiegouzhuanxingdezhiliangheduichangshoushidaideshiyingxing。

zuihou,zhengfuyingjijiyindaogerenzhuanbianrenshihexingwei,shigerengengjijizhudongdiguihuachangshourensheng。changshoushidaidedaolaishigebukenidemingti,zhengfukejiadajiaoyu、xuandaodelidu,bangzhuminzhonggengqingximingquedirenshidaoxinshidaidedaolaijigetijiangmianduidetiaozhan,guligerenchixujileirenliziben,gengzaodikaiqicaifuguihua。ruqiansuoshu,changshoushidaixia,gerenderenshengjiangbuzaishidanyidexianxingweidu,zaijiaoyu、zhiyexuanzedengfangmiangetijiangjuyougengduodelinghuoxing。duici,zhengfuyoubiyaokaolvgenglinghuodeshehuizhilimoshiyuzhengcezhidu,bangzhugetishixianfeixianxingrenshengsuoxudeguodu,tigaoshiyingxing。

3.在企業層面,需加速商業模式和組織轉型以應對長壽時代的挑戰

zuoweiguominjingjidexibao、shichangjingjihuodongdezhuyaocanyuzhe,qiyezaichangshoushidainenggoufahuidezuoyongduishehui、zhengfuhegerenlaishuodoujuyouzhongyaoyiyi,tongshiqiyeweilaidefazhanyebijiangshoudaochangshoushidaideyingxiang,changshoushidaizhengshiqiyejiejuetuchumaodun、manzurenminqunzhongduimeihaoshenghuodexiangwang、chuangzaohexinjiazhideshidai。changshoushidaideshehuixuqiuyilaolingrenkoudexuqiuweijichu,laorendexuqiujiangbujinjinshiweichishengcun,ershishixianzijideyuanjing,qiyebixushenkelejiezheyixuqiubianhua,zaishangyeshangjinxingchuangxin。hafodaxuedeguanlixuezhekelaidun·kelisitansen(clayton christensen)wu1997niantichuledianfuxingchuangxinlilun,zhichudianfuxingchuangxinjiushiyonggengjiandan、gengbianyi、bixianyoujishugengkexinlaihegengfangbiandejishuquzhengqushengli(kelaidun·kelisitansen,2014)。weilemanzuchangshoushidailaorendexuqiu,qiyexuyaobuduanjiangdichengben,shidemianxianglaorendechanpinhefuwugengfangbianheshihui。julilaishuo,meiguoyanglaoshequdefazhan,jiuzunconglezheyangyigechuangxinyuanze,ru「taiyangcheng」,tongguochushoulaonianrenkeyidaikuangoumaidedaxingyanglaoshequzhuzhai,bagaoerfujulebubianchenglaorenderichangdeshenghuo,kaiqilemeiguoduijijituixiushenghuodexiaofei(trolander,2011)。muqian,xinyidaideyanglaoshequzhengzaibaxiaofeixingdeshequbianchengyigexiaoxingdechangshoujingjiti,jitongguoguimohua、jiyuehuadefangshimanzulaonianrendejichuxinghefazhanxingxiaofei,yougulilaorenfahuiyinfazhilijixuchuangzuoyushengchan,zhedadajiangdilegaopinzhichangshoushenghuodechengben。

yuxuqiugaibianhegonggeicedechuangxinxiangduiying,miaosufeitingmenrenweigongxiangheshengtaijiangchengweiqiyedexinzuzhixingshi。weileyingduichangshoushidaidetiaozhan,changshoushidaideqiyexuyaojianligongxiangjizhi,yijifazuzhihuoli、tishengzuzhixiaolv。gongyehuashidaideqiyexiguanwubiaozhunhuade、liuchenghuade、yiwuzhixingheguanlidegongzuojizhi。erbansuichangshoushidaidedaolai,duojieduanrenshengshiderenmendegongzuoheshenghuobiandegenglinghuo,zhezhonglinghuoxingjiangshichuantongqiyeduiliuchenghua、biaozhunhuahekeyucexingdesuqiunanyidedaomanzu。weileshiyingzhezhongbianhua,qiyezishendeneibuxingtaiyexuyaozugoudelinghuoxinglaishiyingweilaigengduoyanghuadegerenzhiyefazhanxuqiu。qiyechuantongdeguyongmoshijiangzhuanbianweihehuomoshi,jianliliyigongxiangjizhi,rangchengyuanzhaodaoguishugan、jiazhigan,tixianqiyejiajingshen,congerzuidachengdudizhanxianchujijixinghechuangzaoli。tongshi,youwuchangshoushidairenkounianlingjiegouzhuzhuangtezhi,genianlingduanrenkoufenbujunyun,nianlingzuneihezujiandexuqiuquwuduoyuanhua,zhehuidailaishichangjizhongdudexiajiangheshichangxuqiudeduoyanghua。ermianduishichangbianhua,zhiyoujianlishengtaichanyetixideqiyecainenggoumanzuchangshoushidaikehuduoyanghuadexuqiu。zaichangshoushidai,suizhuxunxijishudailaidebianli,chuantongdedaxingqiyejiangyoukenengbeigengduodexiaoerjingdexifenlingyudegengzhuanyedeqiyesuobaowei,daxingqiyejiangyuyuelaiyueduodexiaoqiyezuchengshengtaixitong,gongtongyingjieweilaidetiaozhan。

miaosufeitingmenzhuyidao,xiangjiaoqitaqiye,shangyebaoxiangongsizaicanyugoujianchangshoushidaixiadechanyetixifangmianjuyouduteyoushi。baoxianshijinrongfuwuye,gengshiminshengchanye,yuyanglao、jiankangchanyeyoutianrandejiaoji。yifangmianshangyebaoxiangongsikeyitongguobutongleixingdebaoxianjindeleiji,jiejuebutongcengjikehuweilaichangqideyanglaohejiankangzijinxuqiu;lingyifangmian,zaichangshoushidaishangyebaoxiangongsibujinkeyishigerenhejiatingyiyangzhifuzijindezhongyaochengdanzhe,shiqiyehezhengfucaigouyanglaohejiankangbaozhangjihuadechanpintigongzhe,gengkeyichengweiyiliao、yanglao、jiankangfuwuchanyechuangxinfazhandeyoulicujinzhe。jieyongbaoxianzijinteyoudechangqixinghewendingxing,shangyebaoxiangongsichangqitouzizhichiyanglaodichan、yiliaojiankangchanyedefazhan,bujinnengjiejueshangshuchanyefazhanderongziwenti,yenengshixianbaoxianzijintouzideduoyuanhua,gengshibaoxianchanyeliandeyanshen,jianlichanyeshengtaiqudexietongxiaoyong。

zhongguozhengzaiyinglaichangshoushidai,zhongguolingxiandebaoxiangongsidouzaibutongchengdushangtansuoqiyejiejuefangan。taikangbaoxianjituanzai23niandeshangyeshijianzhongbayijiachuantongderenshoubaoxiangongsizhubugaizao、zhuanbian、zhuanxingweidajiankangshengtaitixi,tansuochuyitaoyingduichangshoushidaixuqiuyutiaozhandeqiyejiejuefangan,juyouyidingdianxingxing,xingyefenfenxiaofang,yijingchengweihafoshangxueyuandejiaoxueanli,zhelimiaosufeitingmenzuoweianlijiayiyanjiu。taikangbaoxianjituangufenyouxiangongsichengliwu1996nian,zhijinyifazhanchengweiyijiahangaibaoxian、ziguan、yiyangsandahexinyewudedaxingbaoxianjinrongfuwujituan。zuoweibaoxianyeshougezaiquanguofanweitouziyanglaoshequshidianqiye,gaigongsiyiwanchengbeijing、shanghai、guangzhoudeng19gequanguozhongdianchengshiyanglaoshequbuju,chengweiquanguozuidadegaopinzhiliansuoyanglaojituanzhiyi。bingchengyiyangronghelinian,yanglaoshequneipeijianyikangfu、laonianyixueweitesedekangfuyiyuan。weiraochangshoushidaidezhuti,gaigongsitongguodazaochangshou、jiankang、fuzu3gebihuan,goujiandajiankangchanyeshengtaitixi。qizhong,changshoubihuanzhishouxianyuyanglaofuwugouchengdebihuan,kehugoumaishouxianhenianjinbaozhang,zaiyanglaoshequlianxiangwannian;jiankangbihuanzhijiankangxianyuyiliaofuwugouchengdebihuan,kehugoumaijiankangbaoxianbaozhang,zaiyiliaotixixiangshouzhenliaodengjiankangfuwu;fuzubihuanzhiyanglaojinyuziguangouchengdebihuan,kehugoumaigeleicaifuguanlichanpinshixiancaifudebaozhizengzhi,baozhangzijideyiliaoheyanglaoxuqiu。miaosufeitingmenrenwei,tongguozhifujiafuwu,zaijiehezhongjiandetouzijileishijianjiazhi,taikangdeshangyemoshigoujianchubutongwuchuantongbaoxianjingzhengdequanxinweidu,chanshengbijiaoyoushi。

congshangyemoshidejiaodulaikan,chuangxindebenzhishibianjieheshihui。mianduichangshoushidaidetiaozhan,taikangjiangbaoxianyushitiyiyangxiangjiehe,tongguozhuanshudenianjinbaoxianchanpin「xingfuyouyue」fujiayanglaoshequbaozhengruzhuhandefangshi,jiweikehuweilaidechangshoushenghuotigongzugoudezijinjilei,youtiqiansuodingyouzhiyanglaoshequziyuan,shixianlebaoxiankehuyuyanglaofuwudelianjie。zaicijichushangtaikangjinyibutichu「huoliyanglao、gaoduanyiliao、zhuoyuelicai、zhongjiguanhuai」siweiyitidequanshengmingzhouqishangyemoshi,zaishitifuwufangmianshixianleduilaonianshengmingliandezhenghe,mubiaoshishichangzhemenyizuiyoudechengben、zuigaodexiaolvhuodezuiyouzhideyiyangkangningquanfangweifuwuhetiyan。tongshiweilenenggoupeihegaishangyemoshidexiaoshouhefuwu,gaigongsidazaole「jiankangcaifuguihuashi」zheyiquanxinzhiye,xingfuyouyuexiliechanpin、taikangzhijiayanglaoshequhejiankangcaifuguihuashisanweiyitiquanfangweimanzuchangshoushidairenmenduimeihaoshenghuodexiangwang。miaosufeitingmenrenwei,taikangzhezhongmoshidailaidexiaolvtigaohechengbenjiangditixianzaiyixiajigefangmian: shouxian,yanglaoshequzaishejishangtixianshilaohua(rucaiyongxiaohuxingsheji),zaijiansheyingyunshangtixianjiyuehua,zailiansuojingyingshangcongpinpaituiguangdaogongyingliandoujuyouguimojingji,zhedoutixianleshangyechuangxindebenzhi;dier,yanglaoshequdeliansuoyingyunyouliwuyanglaokejidechuangxinheyingyong,tidaibufenangguirenli,zheyouzhuwuxiaolvdejinyibutisheng,shidejuminxiangshougenggaozhilianghebianjiedefuwu;zuihou,shequjumintongguotaikangdebaoxianchanpintiqianchuxu,xiangshoufulixiaoying,zairuzhuhoukeyidadajiangdicaiwuyali。taikangzhezhongshangyemoshijiangshidegengduodezhongchanjiejinenggoufudandeqigaopinzhideyanglaoshenghuo,tigaozhifunengli,jiangdixiaofeichengben,genghaodizhuiqiuchangshoushidaixiadeyuanjing,jiangtuidongyichangyanglaogeming。

秒速飞艇zuoweiyigeqiyemianxiangchangshoushidaidetansuo,miaosufeitingmenyefaxiantahuiduizhengfuzhengceheshehuifazhanzaochengshenyuandeyingxiang。jinnianlaiguojiabanbuyixiliewenjiangulihezhichibaoxianqiyeweishehuifuwulingyutigongchangqigubenrongzi、canyuyanglaofuwujigoudejiansheyingyun、yinlingyiyanglingyudegaigefazhan,biru2020nianyinbaojianhuilianheshisanbuweibanbude《guanwucujinshehuifuwulingyushangyebaoxianfazhandeyijian》jiuzhichu,yunxushangyebaoxianjigouyouxutouzishelizhongxiyidengyiliaojigouhekangfu、zhaohu、yiyangjiehedengjiankangfuwujigou;gulibaoxianzijinyuqitashehuizibenhezuoshelijubeiyiyangjiehefuwugongnengdeyanglaojigou,zengjiaduoyanghuayanglaofuwugonggeidengdeng。taikangfangandeshijianyuguojiazhengcedezhidingbanbuxianghucujinheyinzheng。zaishehuicengmian,taikangyanglaoshequzhengzaitongguotigongchangshoufuwuxiangshehuifuneng,changshichengweichangshoujingjideshiyantian。zaixuqiuduan,yanglaoshequzhiliwutigongjiankangzixun、jiankangguanlidengyiliaofuwu,tigonggaozhiliangdewenhuahuodongjimiaosufeitingchangsuo,tongguokejiyingyongdazaogengduoshilaohuasheshi,shixianjiankangyanglao、wenhuayanglao、zhihuiyanglao;zaigonggeiduan,yanglaoshequweichangzhemenfahuiyulifanbushehuidajianxindepingtai,tongguotigongyuanchengjiaoxue、dajianzhuanjiapingtaidengfangshirangchangzhemenjileidezhishijingyanchixuzhidaoshehuishengchan,chixuchuangzaojiazhi。

zongshangsuoshu,taikangfangandebenzhishiyongshangyefangshituidongyichangyanglaogeming,yongshichangjingjidefangfaheshangyechuangxinlaibuduantishengxiaolv、jiangdichengben,weirenleishehuijinruchangshoushidaitigongyingduisilu。zhebujinshichangshoushidaideqiyejiejuefangan,erqieshiyizhongyiqiyedeliliangtuidongshehuihezhengfujiejuechangshoushidaitiaozhandefangan。zaichangshoushidaidelangchaozhixia,zhongguoxuyaogengduoqiyetourudaoshehuiminshenggongchengdejianshedangzhong,chengchangweidajiankanghedaminshenggongchengdehexinguganqiye。

五、結論

秒速飞艇geleishujudouzaibiaomingshijiezhengzaikuaisubianlao,renleishehuizhengzaijinruchangshoushidai,renkounianlingjiegoujiangzhubuxingchengxinjunheng,disiwanglv、dishengyulv、yuqishoumingwenbutisheng、renkounianlingjiegouquxiangzhuzhuang、pingtaiqilaolingrenkouzhanbichaoyue1/4gouchenglezheyishidaidewudatezhi。bansuizhuchangshoushidaidedaolai,daibingshengcunjiangchengweipubianxianxiang,weileshidemanchangdechangshoushengyakeyigengjiayouzhiliang,getitouruzaijiankangshangdefeiyongjiangjuzeng,pangdadejiankangxuqiujiangcujinjiankangchanyedefazhanhejiankangchanyejiegoudebianhua;tongshi,changshoushidaishehuichuxujiegoujigerencaifujileixingshijianghuifashengbianhua,gerenjianggengjiayilaitouzihuibaohecaifujileilaimanzuyanglaohejiankangdexuqiu,changshoushidaibijiangdailaijiankangshidaihecaifushidai。conghongguanjiaodukan,dangqianduiwuchangshoushidaiduihongguanjingjideyingxiangyoubutongdeguandian: youderenweilaolingrenkoubilizengjiajiangdaozhijingjizengsufanghuan,yeyouzuixindeyanjiubiaomingchangshoushidaiweibihuidaozhijingjizengsuxiaxing。changshoushidaixiashehuijingjidefazhanjimianlintiaozhan,rushehuichuangxinxiaolvshouxianyijicaifubupingdengchengdujiashendeng,youcunzaijiyu,youqishishiyingchangshoushidaishehuijingjijiegoudeshigengyouhuolidechangshoujingji,laonianrendejiazhijiangbeizhongxinrenshi、dingweihefajue。ribenmuqianshiquanqiurenkoulaolinghuazuiyanzhongdeguojiazhiyi,changshoushidaixiaderibenlaodongli、shehuijingjifashengleshenkebianhua,duizhongguoyingduichangshoushidaidechongjijuyoujingyanqishi。congribenjingyankeyituizhitongguotigaorenliziben、jiakuaijishuyindao、cujinshehuigongping、jiansheyouxiaodezibenshichang、yinruchangshoujingjichuangzaodisancirenkouhonglidengkeyiyouxiaocujinjingjifazhan。changshoushidaiyijinglailin,xiangbiqitaguojia,zhongguorenkoujishuda、laolingrenkouzengchangjinchengyufajiasu,danrenjunshourujichuxujunbujitongshiqifadaguojia,nanyizhichenggerentuixiuhoudejiankangheyanglaoxiaofeishuiping,changshoushidaidedaolaiduizhongguoshehuihejingjideyingxiangchengdugengda,zhongxinguihuachangshoushidaigetiquanshengmingzhouqideanpai,shishehui、zhengfu、qiyedouxuyaokaolvdewenti。zhongguodeqiyeyijingzaijijitansuochangshoushidaidejiejuefangan,weizhongguonaizhiquanqiumianduichangshoushidaidetiaozhanhejiyutigongleyizhongyiqiyeshijiantuidongshehuibiangedekechixuwendingfazhanfangan。

秒速飞艇benwenxitongxingdichanshulechangshoushidaidetezhiyuxingcheng,kuochongbingfengfuleqineihanyuwaiyan,duixiangguandexueshulilunjinxinglexiangshideyanjiu,bingcongdongtaishijiaotantaolechangshoushidaidetiaozhanhejiyu,tichuleduizhongguoyingduicelvedejianyi,chubutichulejiejuefangandeshexianghejutishangyeshijian。zaichangshoushidaidelilunkuangjiaxia,xiayibuxujinyibukuochongwanshanchangshoushidaixiangguanderenkouxue、jiankangjingjixue、changshoujingjidengxueshulilundeyanjiu,shenrujiexichangshoujingjidexuqiujiegouheshengchanfangshi,yanshenfengfuchangshoushidaijiejuefangandeshijiantansuo,zhongdiantantaozaizhongguoshehuijingjifazhandebeijingxiaruheqianzhanxingdigenjuchangshoushidaideliluntuidongshehuichanyejiegoudebianhua,yinlingshangyeqiyedefazhanbiange,jiejuechangshoushidaikenengdailaidegezhongshehuiwenti。

yuanwenkanfa:

chendongsheng: 《changshoushidaidelilunyuduice》,《guanlishijie》,2020niandi4qi,di66~85、129ye。

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